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Archive for the ‘Learning’ Category

Parker Palmer gives a wonderful illustration that resonates with my own “journey toward an Undivided Life”:

Palmer describes how as we grow out of childhood, the wholeness of our lives gets divided into onstage and backstage lives. In our outer (onstage) life we are concerned with things like influence, image, and impact, while our inner (backstage) life is characterized by intuition, instinct and insight. Over time as we become more concerned with “surviving and succeeding in the external world we slowly lose touch with our souls and disappear into our roles”.

We discover that it is not safe to reveal too much of who we are and so we end up building a wall of separation. The result is disconnect and causes us pain and yearning. It is only when our outer and inner lives are seamlessly one, that we experience life that is flourishing and genuine.

I would also add that when we realize our identity in Christ, then we have the courage to connect our lives with other believers who share that same identity. Sadly, many Christians still have their walls up, which is why authentic Christ-centered community is so elusive.

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Although both authors, Vanhoozer (Trinity Evangelical Divinity School) and Strachan (Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary) are academic theologians, they both share a concern for the well-being of the church, hence this book.

After the introduction, the book is simply structured into two parts of two chapters each, followed by a concluding chapter. The book shares the same goal as Hiestand and Wilson’s book of recovering the lost vision of the pastor theologian. They furthermore argue that the pastor theologian is a public theologian as indicated by the book’s title.

In the book’s Introduction, Vanhoozer laments how today’s pastors are more focused on “management skills, strategic plans, ‘leadership’ courses, therapeutic techniques” than they are on theology. The book’s “underlying conviction is that theological minds need to return to where they belong: in the body of Christ” (2) rather in the academy. In laying out his thesis, Vanhoozer notes that there are “three sets of people, three publics, each with its own kind of opinion. By three publics, I mean three social realities, three locations, into which pastors [me: only pastors?!] may speak of God and Jesus Christ: (1) the academy, (2) the church, and (3) the broader society.” (p. 4)

He argues that pastor-theologians “must be trilingual, able to speak the language of all three social locations, or at least speak it well enough to ask directions (and give them). Our task in this book is to argue, first, that pastors must be theologians; second, that every theologian is in some sense a public theologian; and third, that a public theologian is a very particular kind of generalist.” (5) He then goes on to survey how the vision of the pastor-theologian was lost, and here the story is a familiar one, if one has already read Hiestand and Wilson.

They argue that theology became an academic discipline during the rise of the medieval universities, so that the locus of theological influence shifted from church to academy. This shift was decisive after the rise of liberalism in the early 1800s with the restructuring of the “theological curriculum into its now-familiar fourfold division—biblical studies, church history, systematic theology, and practical theology” (5). In their view, the

perception that academic scholarship is abstract and “theoretical,” disconnected from the issues of daily life, neither relevant nor necessary for “practical” ministry, is perhaps the single greatest prejudice against theological education, along with the corresponding notion that the “practical” disciplines are pragmatic and lacking in theological sophistication in its underlying foundation. (5-6)

The situation is  exacerbated by the reality that “much theology is written by academics for academics”, or as he calls them, “professor-theologians”.  As such, it is “often difficult to translate or apply these technical treatments of specialized topics to the everyday needs of one’s congregation.” (6)  Furthermore, the divide in the academy between biblical studies and theology, and their increasingly sophisticated and specialized nature adds to the challenge in trying to reap the benefits of the scholarly insights therein.

Within the church context, Vanhoozer and Strachan argue that metaphors used to paint the picture of pastors’ roles have changed and multiplied, e.g., the pastor as CEO, manager, and therapist. Many of these images reflect shifting cultural trends and are not always healthy (nor biblical!).  Eugene Peterson note that the “vocation of pastor has been replaced by the strategies of religious entrepreneurs with business plans” (The Pastor: A Memoir, p. 4). In another book, Peterson has even stronger words of critique: “American pastors, without really noticing what was happening, got our vocations redefined in terms of American careerism” and that they are consequently driven by “opportunity for advancement” (Under the Unpredictable Plant: An Exploration in Vocational Holiness, p. 20). I think any honest observer of the religious scene would have to affirm the detrimental effects of the professionalization of pastors. This is not entirely the fault of your average, well-intentioned pastor, who are subjected to both the expectations of the congregation and pressures for growth (i.e. numbers) from denominational HQ.

Lastly, with respect to the context of the larger society, the authors lament the loss of the golden age when “pastors were revered and respected public figures with a certain degree of social status … and frequently the best-educated persons” (10). Drawing from studies such as Oracles and Odysseys of the Clergy: Images of the Ministry in Western Literature (David Larsen; 2007), The Church on TV (Richard Wolff; 2010), and Pastors in the Classics: Timeless Lessons on Life and Ministry from World Literature (Leland Ryken, Philip Ryken, and Todd Wilson; 2012), they outline the shifting (and increasingly negative) characterization of clergy in popular culture (novels, television and films). On the flip side, there is also the disturbing trend of churches capitulating to the culture of celebrity worship, where big name brand preachers are idolized and lionized, and rewarded with financial gains and church growth.

In clarifying what they mean by their proposal of pastors as public theologians, they urge “Christians to be neither a domineering presence in society nor an otherworldly absence, but rather a witnessing presence”, or in other words, “to be salt and light by bringing the Christian vision of God and the good life into the public sphere” (20). They go on to quote Miroslav Volf to crystallize what they have in mind: “A vision of human flourishing and the common good is the main thing the Christian faith brings into the public debate.” (A Public Faith: How Followers of Christ Should Serve the Common Good; 2011). They further note that the word public has in view “people”, hence public theology is simply “theology made up of people” (20), i.e., the life of the church is a “hermeneutic of the gospel” (Newbigin’s phrase):

In sum: the people of God are the public place where what is in Christ is remembered, celebrated, explored, and exhibited. Stated simply: the pastor’s task is to help congregations “to become what they care called to be.” This is the ancient-future task of the pastor as public theologian. (21)

The rest of the book is the fleshing out of this vision and task.  Part 1 (by Strachan) approaches the subject from the standpoint of Biblical Theology and Historical Theology and comprises two chapters:

  • Of Prophets, Priests, and Kings: A Brief Biblical Theology of the Pastorate
  • Of Scholars and Saints: A Brief History of the Pastorate

Vanhoozer takes up the task in Part 2 from the standpoint of Systematic Theology and Practical Theology, again in two chapters:

  • In the Evangelical Mood: The Purpose of the Pastor-Theologian
  • Artisans in the House of God: The Practices of the Pastor-Theologian

An added bonus is the inclusion of 2 or 3 short practical meditations at the end of each chapter from practicing pastor-theologians, sharing their experiences in trying to live out this vision.

As this review is already way too long, I can only highlight a few salient points and offer my personal observations. In chapter 1, Strachan attempts to argue for the pastor as (in some way) inheriting the roles of prophet (ministering truth), priest (ministering grace) and king (ministering wisdom). However, while certainly, in some sense, pastor do fill these roles, they do so non-exclusively; i.e., all Christians constitute a “royal priesthood” (as he himself does acknowledge). In this sense, I cannot fully agree with him when he writes that “the pastor emulates the priest through self-sacrificial ministry of the gospel, participating in Christ’s own high-priestly ministry as his earthly delegates.” (51)  I fail to find this exclusive emphasis in the New Testament. More importantly, these roles are fulfilled in Christ, and therefore, all Christians are called to emulate them by virtue of our union with Christ).

Strachan is correct to note that throughout church history, “the pastor was a theologian” (70) and a “scholar saint” (David Wells, The Courage to be Protestant; 2008). Sadly, that is rarely the case today. Part of the problem is the unbiblical expectation of the pastor as a “one man band”, responsible for doing all the teaching/preaching, administration (including budgets and buildings), counselling and visitation. The other factor is that some so-called pastors are more interested in being the CEO, the psycho-therapist, or the life coach. How to address this? First and foremost, get rid of pastors  who are clearly not qualified (they never should have been “hired” in the first place!) Secondly, spread the load amongst all the pastors/elders. Thirdly, partner with church members who demonstrate the gift of teaching and a passion for studying to form a collegial fellowship to study and reflect on biblical and theological studies. Lastly, pastors (and all Christians for that matter) need to be more intentional about how they use their time, and to let go of things that distract.

Drawing on Heidegger’s term “mood” for the way in which we experience being-in-the-world, Vanhoozer writes: Pastor-theologians exist to embody the evangelical mood, an indicative declaration (“He is risen! He is Lord!”) and a concomitant way of being that is attuned to the world as already-not-yet made new in Jesus Christ. I can certainly add my Amen! to this, except once again, this statement is equally true of ANY Christian! Why this insistence on singling out truths to apply only to pastors?!

He also encourages pastors to minister understanding by cultivating habits of knowledge acquisition:

  • Reading God’s Word: Biblical Literacy
  • Reading the World: Cultural Literacy
  • Reading Fiction: Human Literacy

Again, I wholeheartedly agree, but that should not be required of pastors only! Especially when they write, “Understanding is also practical. … Gaining understanding produces know-how, as in knowing how to act out knowledge in everyday life.” (120) Surely, such practical knowledge is of utmost interest and importance to all Christians! And clearly, Christians need to be able to learn how to discerningly apply the truth of God’s Word to their specific situations in a theologically sound and wise manner. How else can Christians get weaned off milk and become mature enough for “solid food”, as those “whose minds are trained by practice to distinguish good from evil.” (Heb. 5:13-14; ISV) This seem to me to be the only scriptural, sustainable and scalable solution.

In the closing chapter, Vanhoozer writes: “For, while all Christians must bear witness to their life in Christ, it is the special privilege and responsibility of pastors to baptize and teach disciples.” (141)  Really? Where does one find this is in the pages of the NT? Further in the chapter, he writes: “Other people care for us, but the pastor cares in a special way: as one appointed to Christ to minister the truth, goodness, and beauty of the gospel to every person in the church.” (153)  This does not resonate with my experience at all: the person who has ministered to me the most in a special way is a dear brother who works as a janitor but serves God “full time” otherwise. He goes on to single out the pastor as Evangelist, Catechist, Liturgist, and Apologist, making pastors out to be Super Saints and a One Man Show whereas scripture focuses on the One Another approach to mutual edification and ministry.

The book concludes with 55 summary theses on the pastor as public theologian, distilling the main points discussed in the book. In thesis 18, the authors uncritically accept the rise of the monarchial bishop as a natural ecclesiastical development. In thesis 24, they rightly state that many “modern pastors … came to see their vocation as a helping profession [and therefore] lost interest in theology”. In thesis 33, they state that pastor-theologians “devote themselves to the privilege of studying, interpreting, and ministering understanding of God’s Word to others” (186). But, by the grace of God, I have had the same privilege of “privilege of studying, interpreting, and ministering understanding of God’s Word to others”, albeit with less opportunities (to share the fruits of my studying) in my current church since the pulpit is more “fenced off” than the Brethren assemblies where I spent my formative years. Does that make me as a pastor-theologian?!!

 

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The authors of this book are co-founders of the Center for Pastor Theologians and co-pastors of a church just outside of Chicago. Their zeal for restoring theological acumen to the pastorate is commendable and their book largely succeeds in arguing their case in an engaging manner.

The title of the book’s opening chapter summarizes and signals the thesis of the book: Pastor or Theologian? A Division of Labor, a Crisis of Identity, or as they state it plainly: “to help resurrect a once-thriving but now-deceased vision of the pastor, namely, the pastor theologian” (10). In surveying the landscape of modern Christian culture, it is hard not to disagree with their observation that “pastors no longer traffic in ideas” (11). At best, pastors see themselves as “intellectual middle management” who broker theological truths from professional theologians/scholars to the laity. At worst, some pastors are ignorantly indifferent to theology, and are satisfied with feeding psycho-babble pablum to their unwitting congregations.

The resulting bifurcation of the pastorate into pastors as separate from theologians has serious consequences: “theology has become ecclesially anemic, and the church theologically anemic” (13). One need only peruse some of the obtuse titles of scholarly monographs and journal articles to ascertain the immense gap between academic theologians perched in their proverbial ivory towers and Jane Christian struggling to make sense of the recent loss of her five-year old son to cancer. Theologians: “ecclesially anemic”. Conversely, it is tragic and troubling that some pastors are so theologically illiterate and ill-informed. One need only undertake a random sampling of sermons (readily available thanks to the Internet) to affirm this sad state of affairs. Pastors: “theologically anemic.”

After establishing the problem, Hiestand and Wilson take the reader on a historical tour covering 5 periods, beginning with the apostolic Fathers and concluding with the Enlightenment. Some of the figures who are lifted up as exemplars of their pastor-theologian vision include: “Irenaeus, Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, Augustine, Gregory the Great, Anselm, Calvin, Edwards, Wesley, etc.” (22) While I found the historical survey brief but interesting, there is no critique of the post-biblical ecclesiastical developments that (at least partially) underwrite their vision, e.g., the rise of the mono-episcopate and the ensuing curtailing of the “charismatic” and participatory nature of church gatherings, to name but two. More fundamentally, how did the term pastor (used only once in the NT to refer to those who shepherd the church) get differentiated from and elevated above the synonymous terms elder and overseer?

They argue that the demise of the pastor theologian was due to the seismic shifts brought on by the Enlightenment and the American Revolution. The shift from church to the university as the intellectual center, followed by the rise of divinity schools in response to the increasing secularization of the universities finally led to the separation of pastor and theologian from what “was once viewed as a single occupation” into “two distinct —and mutually exclusive—vocations” (42).

In chapter 4, the authors examine the “theological amnesia of the church” and assert that “the moral laxity of evangelicalism” is at least partly due to “a failure of belief” (54).  Drawing from Augustine’s ordo voluntatis, they note that our actions are motivated by our desires, i.e., what we love. However, love “does not arise in a vacuum”, but rather, from our beliefs, whether right or wrong. God has given us a mind “to understand what is true and to love what is good” (City of God, 22.24), and it is because of this that theology is so vitally important for our Christian formation. On this point, one encounters the sentiments of your average Christians (including some pastors!) that run counter to this, viz., that theology is irrelevant and boring, and offers nothing of practical value to their life. Such is the current sad state of affairs.

However, theology is nothing less than learning to think and “say right things about God, ourselves, and our world in ways that shape true belief and orient human beings toward their proper purpose.” (55)  Or, in the other words of Puritan theologian William Ames, theologia est scientia vivendo Deo. Casting theology as impractical and a waste of time betrays a mind that has already been swayed and held captive by competing messages from our fallen world, as well as our experiences and habits. Indeed, it is deep theological analysis and critical reflection that can unveil the false assumptions (consciously and unconsciously held) and distorted beliefs and desires that animate our actions and shape our imaginations. This is in fact what James K.A. Smith seeks to explore and expound in his Cultural Liturgies project, of which the third volume is about to be published.

Furthermore, there are grave consequences to such theological anemia: “evangelicals are floundering ethically because we are floundering theologically” (56). To this I would heartily agree and grieve with them at the theological poverty that characterizes most churches today. Hiestand and Wilson then go on to say that “pastors bear the day-to-day burden of teaching and leading God’s people” (57). Let us consider this statement carefully. First of all, it is signally not true that pastors have a “day-to-day” impact on the average congregational member, for which the Sunday morning sermon is the only instructional intake they receive for an entire week. The stark reality is that the messages they daily receive from our media-saturated world is what is more determinative of their spiritual formation (cf. Smith’s Cultural Liturgies books mentioned above).

Even if we consider the messages that are putatively Christian ones, there is no guarantee of discerning sound doctrine unless they have been taught to think theologically. Realizing the didactic limitations of the Sunday sermon, most churches supplement with Sunday School / Bible study classes and small groups during the week. However, depending on whether there are any biblically astute people in these classes or groups, often the result is “pooled ignorance”. Far too often, the scripture passage under consideration serves only as a launching pad for people’s own opinions, as hermeneutical principles are trampled underfoot in the mad rush to squeeze something practical and useful out of God’s Word. Now granted, in an evangelical setting, most of the discussion, however misguided, are usually not heretical. However, the teaching and discussion is certainly not as “nutritious” as it could be, and over the long haul, our Christian walk will become anemic.

Secondly, in smaller churches, the burden of preaching the Sunday sermon usually falls to a single person, which is less than ideal in the best case, and absolutely frightening in the worse case. The short of it is that from pedagogical, practical and logistical perspectives, placing the “day-to-day burden of teaching” upon one person is unrealistic (and sub-biblical, I would also argue) no matter how gifted and energetic that person is. What passes for biblical instruction in your typical sermon is often anemic and lacking theological awareness and biblical substance. Part of the problem is that we have exalted the sermon far too high and placed too much expectation on the sermon as the only means of nurturing believers. Though he still insists on the primacy and centrality of preaching, Jonathan Griffiths concurs that:

Preaching is necessary and vital – but not all-sufficient – for the nourishment and edification of the local church. All God’s people are ministers of his word, and a healthy church will be a church where all kinds of word ministries (formal and informal) flourish and abound.

Preaching in the New Testament: An Exegetical and Biblical-Theological Study (New Studies in Biblical Theology; InterVarsity Press, 2017).

Finally, the authors assume that there are no autodidacts in the congregation who are passionate about studying the Word and growing in theological maturity. Granted, this would constitute a very small minority in most churches. Nonetheless, some of these theology geeks and nerds can often have more breadth and depth of knowledge, if for no other reason than the simple reality that pastors are torn in so many directions, with hours sucked away by administrative duties and countless meetings. Therefore, pastors need to partner with those in their congregation who have the capacity, passion and burden for serious theological engagement, and work together with them if this vision (of “theological integrity”, p. 58) is to be realized in your average church. With much concern for the Church, I sadly echo David Wells: “I have watched with growing disbelief as the evangelical church has cheerfully plunged into astounding theological illiteracy” (writing in the introduction of his seminal work, No Place for Truth: Or, Whatever Happened to Evangelical Theology?).

The authors go on to propound a taxonomy of the “pastor theologian”:

  • local theologian: here, they have in mind “a theologically astute pastor who ably services the theological needs of a local church” (81)
  • popular theologian: this is a local (pastor) theologian who expands his influence by a writing ministry that popularizes academic theology for the masses
  • ecclesial theologian: here, they have in mind a pastor who provides theological leadership (almost on par with academic theologians in their scholarly aptitude) to the larger church on issues that professional academic theologians have ignored or have done so without taking the ecclesial context in mind

With respect to being called to be an ecclesial theologian, I doubt there are many pastors who would be able to fill those shoes in this busy day and age, but all power to those who can (like the authors!). Hiestand and Wilson acknowledge that “[n]ot every pastor is gifted or called to be an ecclesial theologian, of course”, but they do assert that “evangelicalism’s future vision of the pastor theologian must include that of the ecclesial theologian” (101). Amen! God knows we need more theological leadership in our churches!

In chapter 8, the authors lay out 10 strategies on how to be an ecclesial theologian in a local church setting, and also provide brief profiles of pastors who are attempting to follow such a path. In the book’s concluding chapter, “The Future of a Movement, the Renewal of the Church” they write: “for the sake of the church, it is high time to hold out the historic ideal of the pastor as ecclesial theologian.” (p. 123)  Though I am still somewhat skeptical that the movement will become pervasive, I do sympathize with their diagnosis and heartily agree that “theologically passive pastors only perpetuate the perception that theological acumen is largely an ‘academic’ concern.” (124)

In conclusion, though I have quibbles with their view of ministry (which in fairness is the majority view), I do believe the authors have done an admirable job of arguing their case and I join with them in praying that the vision of the “pastor theologian” might be widely realized. I’ll let Hiestand and Wilson have the last word:

The church needs pastors who are capable of connecting—with robust intellectual integrity—the deep truths of God and our contemporary context. We need pastors who are able to assess the underlying assumptions of our culture and who are able to offer, on behalf of the larger church, cogent responses to that culture. (127)

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Google’s recent firing of one of its software engineers, James Damore, has predictably stirred up a maelstrom of controversy. While the issue in question is not unrelated to evangelical debates on the role of women in the church, I instead wish to comment on the “ideological echo chamber” which Damore claims Google is guilty of.

Accompanying my prodigal return to the fold has been my (inevitable) return to biblical and theological studies. There were of course, the comfortable familiarity of “old friends” and treasured volumes that my brothers in Christ generously gave back to me.  Of course, I also naturally picked up from where I left off, delving deeper and exploring broad swathes through the contemporary terrain of academic scholarship. In particular, I have sought to escape the narrow confines of evangelicalism by intentionally engaging a diverse set of interlocutors with viewpoints that differ from mine: feminist theologians, postmodern Continental philosophers and Orthodox patristic scholars, to cite just a few.

But then, in your typical church, questioning leadership, taking a dissenting position during a church business meeting, knowing too much, and not conforming to the church’s traditions is frowned upon and those who are guilty of such are labeled rebellious, disobedient, naysayer, troublemaker. Controversy is to be avoided at all costs and irenic dialogue is not an option. Basically, if you aren’t toeing the party line, dissenting views will be shut down. In this way, churches too operate in echo chamber mode.

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JR Woodward and Dan White, Jr., The Church as Movement: Starting and Sustaining Missional-Incarnational Communities (IVP; 2016)

During lunch a few days ago, one of my Christian colleagues shared his frustration in trying to find a suitable church home for him and his family. He was looking for a community of believers who were serious about discipleship and the pursuit of godly living. As he further shared his burden with us, I (half) jokingly said to him that it looks like he’d have to go and plant a church from scratch. At this point, when it became apparent that this might indeed be a path he may have to take by the grace of God, I suggested that he read some of the missional literature; in particular, I mentioned two books that I had read / am reading.

Earlier, I had posted a brief blurb on Michael Frost’s book, and in this post I will give an overview of The Church as Movement, which I just finished reading yesterday.

move

This theologically-grounded but practical book is divided into four sections (themes), each with two chapters, thus giving rise to 8 missional competencies:

  • Part 1: Distributing
    1. Movement Intelligence
    2. Polycentric Leadership
  • Part 2: Discipling
    1. Being Disciples
    2. Making Disciples
  • Part 3: Designing
    1. Missional Theology
    2. Ecclesial Architecture
  • Part 4: Doing
    1. Community Formation
    2. Incarnational Practices

These four sections are bookended by an Introduction and an Epilogue, and at 240 pages, this book is not a long-winded treatise, but in keeping with its subject matter, the pace is brisk without feeling rushed.

The Foreword by Alan Hirsch begins with an epigraph by business guru Peter Drucker: “People in any organization are always attached to the obsolete— the things that should have worked but did not, the things that once were productive and no longer are.” It is sad that some things are so sacrosanct that even when they become a hindrance to the advancement of the gospel or church life, Christians refuse to let go of them. As Hirsch notes, “most churches operate out of a largely obsolete understanding of the church that was developed in a completely different age and for a completely different set of cultural and social conditions— largely that of European Christendom.” Hirsch and others have proposed an alternative model of church for the new millennium, and Woodward and White have done a church a huge service in presenting this new paradigm in a fresh and appealing manner in their book. Both write as practitioners who have been through the ups and downs of planting missional-incarnational communities, so this is not a case of hopping on the missional bandwagon and spouting off theories: no, what they write is borne from the fires of failure and boots on the ground experiences. It would be apt to let the authors introduce the rationale for yet another “missional” book:

This book is an attempt to help people plant the kind of churches that reflect the viral movement of the early New Testament, fuelled by the values of tight-knit community, life-forming discipleship, locally rooted presence and boundary-crossing mission. This is “church as movement.”

At the heart of the book is a concern to return to the centrality of discipleship within a communal context. Indeed, I sighed with frustration and sadness when they write in the Introduction: “This book is best used with a group of four to twelve people. … It is important to work through this material with others, since it was designed for a group rather than to be digested alone.” Well, heck, I don’t have even three other people I know who could be part of what they call a “discipleship core”. So sad! It means that my learning from the book will be shortchanged and I will not fully benefit from the formational learning aspects (meta-learning, reflective learning, and experiential learning) that require communal participation. Sigh …

The first theme is “Distributing” which I take to be a shift from a hierarchical and centralized focus to pluriform gifts and polycentric leadership — i.e., a distributed and relational approach.  They begin by describing the Church as the “Christian-industrial complex”, at least those churches that are held up as models of success:

In our American imagination success means growing bigger, collecting more resources, consolidating power, creating strong hierarchical structures and growing rapidly.

American church leaders’ imaginations and metrics for success are increasingly shaped by the things they can count. But, as Albert Einstein said, “That which counts is often the most difficult to count.”

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Constantine R. Campbell, Advances in the Study of Greek: New Insights for Reading the New Testament (Zondervan; 2015).

advances-greek

[I am grateful to Zondervan for providing me a digital review copy of the book through Netgalley]

Summary

If you are at all serious about exegesis and serious study of the Word, then this book is a worthwhile read, no matter how rusty or limited your knowledge of NT Greek is. Dr. Campbell does a commendable job of bringing the reader up-to-date on recent scholarly advances in Koine Greek in a manner that is informative, engaging and accessible.

Remarks

The book begins with a helpful historical survey of Greek scholarship from the 19th century to the present. If this introductory chapter is any indication of the rest of the book, the reader can be assured that Campbell is a reliable guide to the different topics that are surveyed in the remainder of the book. Furthermore, given the important role that linguistics has played in contemporary scholarship, he also provides the reader with a fascinating historical introduction to major developments in the field of linguistics. For example, he surmises that the lack of progress in Greek studies seems to correlate with the “rise of modern linguistics”. He explains that prior to Saussure, the approach was based on “comparative and historical philology”; after Saussure, a synchronic, rather than diachronic approach carried the day in linguistics, “thus making the direction of nineteenth-century Greek philology suddenly almost irrelevant.” (p. 39).

As the survey comes to a close with the modern period, Dr. Campbell cites the contributions of key figures such as James Barr (The Semantics of Biblical Language), Kenneth McKay, Kenneth Pike (one of the early SIL scholars), Johannes Louw and Eugene Nida (for their ground-breaking work, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains), Stanley Porter (perhaps the most prolific Greek scholar today) and others. The chapter closes with a nod to a major resource recently published, the three volume Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek Language and Linguistics (Georgios K. Giannakis, editor).

Chapter 2 offers a brief but excellent introduction to linguistics, a field that is foreign to most people. Campbell’s interesting and informative survey serves to highlight the importance of linguistics and its impact on Koine Greek studies. After outlining the various branches of linguistics, there follows a discussion of the two major schools of linguistic theories: generative linguistics, largely originating from the work of Noam Chomsky and “characterized by the core assumption that all languages are shaped by a universal grammar, or universals of linguistic structure” (58-59); and functional linguistics (and in particular, the Prague school and Systemic Functional Linguistics) which seeks to “account for how language is used, and how the use of language informs us as to its structures” (60). The chapter closes with an illustration of how one’s adherence to a particular linguistic methodology can colour one’s view of, in this case, of temporal reference in Greek verbs.

In the same vein, the following chapter provides a helpful survey of lexical semantics and lexicography. I appreciate that Campbell gives examples from the NT to highlight the practical importance of the lexical principles under discussion. In particular, he discusses the complexities and challenges of applying these principles to NT Greek lexicography.  I really came away with a renewed appreciation of the difficulties entailed in producing a work such as the standard Greek lexicon of the Greek NT, BDAG, as well as the innovations introduced by Louw and Nida in their Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains.

As I am but a novice student of NT Greek and have been away from the Christian scene for awhile, I was not aware of the paradigm shift “taking place in our understanding of Greek voice, with particular reference to the concept of deponency” (91). In chapter 4, Campbell presents arguments from scholars as early as James Hope Moulton and A.T. Robertson questioning the usefulness or legitimacy of deponency. In an appendix to The Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament, Neva Miller concluded that “if the verbs in the above classes are understood as true middles—and if active forms could not have expressed such concepts—then it may be that categorizing such verbs as deponent is no longer relevant” (93). Other scholars followed suit in their criticism of the standard treatment of deponency, culminating in the 2010 SBL Conference (Biblical Greek Language and Linguistics Unit) where Stanley Porter, Bernard Taylor, Jonathan Pennington and Campbell called for the abandonment of deponency. Campbell concludes by highlighting some of the outstanding issues and outlining a path forward, noting that there at least 2 recent NT Greek grammars that teach voice without using deponency.

Chapter 5 deals with a major and controversial topic, verbal aspect. After introducing the concept and helpfully distinguishing tense, Aktionsart and aspect, Campbell moves on to give the reader a history lesson on how the concept developed. In the modern era, Kenneth L. McKay’s contributions must be mentioned, but it was really Stanley Porter’s dissertation, published as Verbal Aspect in the Greek of the New Testament, with Reference to Tense and Mood, that really set things in motion. This was followed shortly  by the independent research of Buist Fanning, whose dissertation was published as Verbal Aspect in New Testament Greek, in which he adopts a more moderate route. This has led to “one of the best-known debates regarding verbal aspect … whether Greek tense-forms semantically encode temporal reference alongside aspect” (114). Of more interest to most readers, including myself, was the helpful section on how verbal aspect can enhance exegesis, and here, Campbell does not disappoint. Granted, the examples are necessarily brief, so he refers the reader to his introductory volume, Basics of Verbal Aspect in Biblical Greek.

Chapter 6 is entitled “Idiolect, Genre and Register” and as the title implies, deals with issues relating to style and genre. According to Campbell, “[s]ome of the points of interest in observing idiolect are vocabulary, syntactical constructions, patterns of verbal usage, and more macro features, such as those observed through discourse analysis” (136). To be honest, I found this chapter a bit of a tough slog, not so much because it is not well written, but because the concepts were largely new to me.

The following two chapters deal with the important topic of discourse analysis, “one of the most exciting new areas of research related to Greek exegesis” (148), which he defines as a “interdisciplinary approach to understanding how units of text relate to one another in order to create the theme, message and structure of a text” (148, 149).  Campbell highlights the benefit of discourse analysis as providing a robust methodology for assessing the exegetical conclusions obtained through traditional exegesis. In Chapter 7 he begins by outlining the four major schools of thought, then proceeds to survey the influential work of M.A.K. Halliday. This is followed in Chapter 8 with a review of the work of Stephen Levinsohn and Steven Runge; in both chapters, Campbell offers a brief but helpful evaluation of each approach as well as its implications for NT exegesis.

I found Chapter 9 on pronunciation rather fascinating, and from the onset of the chapter, Campbell states his position that “[a]ccurate pronunciation is a sign of respect for the Greek language, is people and its history. It also has implications for one’s enjoyment and mastery of Greek” (192). Based on recent research, it is argued that the common (Erasmusian) pronunciation scheme for Koine Greek is incorrect and that it should pronounced in a similar fashion to modern Greek, for which Campbell provides a helpful pronunciation chart. Interestingly, Daniel Wallace, NT scholar and author of the popular textbook, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament, defends the traditional Erasmusian pronunciation, primarily on pedagogical grounds.

Speaking of pedagogy, the book’s final chapter is in fact, all about teaching and learning Greek. Campbell notes that in many introductory grammars, students are rarely asked to actually begin reading the Greek NT, and translation exercises typically deal only with short fragments instead of entire paragraphs or sections. He does cite one recent grammar as an exception, Rodney Decker’s Reading Koine Greek, where by chapter two, students are already asked to read significant portions of John’s Gospel. There is also a brief discussion on the use of software tools such as Accordance, BibleWorks, and Logos, and how they can enhance the study of Greek. Finally, the chapter closes with a review of immersion learning and advice for how to retain one’s proficiency at the language once it has been acquired.

In conclusion, Campbell’s book offers an excellent, engaging tour of the latest in NT Greek research and is highly recommended!

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“Phillip Blond, John Milbank, and Adrian Pabst argue that it is the Christian social vision that represents a genuine ‘third way’ over against the bankrupt politics of the left and the right, beyond the welfare state and the supposedly unbridled free market.”

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